试卷分为试卷一(paper one)和试卷二(paper two)。试卷一包括听力(30%)、词语用法(10%)、完型填空(10%)和阅读理解(30%)，答卷时间115分钟;试卷二包括书面表达(20%)，答卷时间50分钟。
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址整个试卷共五大部分，总分 100 分，答卷时间共 165 分钟，加上考场指令与试卷收发时间，总共考试时间 180 分钟。
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址part Ⅰ 听力理解(listening comprehension)
听力理解分两部分：section a 和 section b，答题时间为 30 分钟。
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址本部分共 5 个对话，每个对话分别由100个左右的单词组成，旨在测试考生对英语对话的听力理解能力，要求考生能理解所听对话的中心思想和主要内容，并能根据所听到的内容进行逻辑推理、分析概括和归纳总结。
题型包括大意概括题 ( questions for the general idea )、具体细节题 ( questions for specific details ) 和判断推理题 ( questions for inference )。每个对话附有3个小题，每个小题附有 4 个选项，要求考生在听完每个对话之后，根据所听内容于12秒内从中选出1个最佳答案。对话及问题只读1遍。
w: can you tell me about yourself, please?
m: sure, my name's harry, 18 years old, currently studying biology and chemistry at school. as you are aware, i hope to pursue a career in medicine.
w: harry, why do you want to be a doctor?
m: well, everyone in my family is a doctor, so i think i can follow on nicely.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址w: apart from treating patients, what do you think being a doctor is going to require?
m: well, you also need to be academic and have to be an excellent communicator with your team and the patients.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址question number 1: what are the two speakers talking about?
question number 2: why does harry choose to be a doctor?
question number 3: what is mentioned by harry as one of the requirements for a doctor?
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址1. a. switching to biology and chemistry.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址b. choosing to be a family physician.
c. going to college.
d. being a doctor.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址2. a. because of his family's influence.
b. because of the fact that he's young.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址c. because of the practical skills he has.
d. because of his love for biology and chemistry.
3. a. a strong sense of responsibility.
b. good communicative skills.
c. excellent health.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址d. great patience.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址本部分共由 5 篇短文组成，每篇短文由 150 个左右的单词组成。旨在测试考生对英语篇章的听力理解能力。要求考生能理解所听短文的中心思想和主要内容，并能根据所听到的内容进行逻辑推理、分析概括和归纳总结。
题型包括大意概括题(questions for the general idea)、具体细节题(questions for specific details)和判断推理题(questions for inference)。每篇短文附有 3 个小题，每个小题附有 4 个选项，要求考生在听完每篇短文后，根据所听内容于 12 秒内从中选出 1 个最佳答案。短文及问题只读一遍。
该部分共 15 个小题，序号为 16～30。每题 1 分，共计15分。例：
we commonly think that our health is affected by our age, gender, lifestyle and genetic factors that we inherit from our parents. however, these factors are only a small part of what affects our health. other factors include our social relationships, income, education and working conditions. let's look at stress for example. unemployment or poor working conditions create unstable life situations and cause stress, which has negative effects on health. one major factor, education, determines income or employment. however, even if you are employed, some workplace conditions, such as lack of flexibility and control over your workday can cause stress. as you can see, many complex social processes and other factors are connected with one another to affect our health. studying how these factors work together in large populations is a challenge for researchers and that is what we would like to look at next.
question number 16: what is the passage mainly about?
question number 17: what does the speaker intend to say by mentioning stress?
question number 18: what does the speaker call for at the end of the passage?
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址16. a. the role of genetic factors.
b. the factors that affect health.
c. the impact of lifestyle on health.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址d. the importance of working conditions.
17. a. people with jobs have less stress.
b. the more education, the less stress.
c. many factors affect health via stress.
d. stress is not related to genetic make-up.
18. a. more challenging research on workplace stress.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址b. a better understanding of stress-health relationship.
c. a better connection between medical research and practice.
d. more research on the combined effects of health-related factors.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址part ii 词语用法(vocabulary)
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址词语用法分 section a 和 section b 两部分。考试时间为 10 分钟。旨在测试考生对英语词汇和短语的理解和使用能力，重点考查名词、形容词、动词、副词和短语等的用法。
section a：填空 ( blank filling )
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址本部分试题的题干为一个或两个句子，句中留有一处空白，题干后附 4 个选项，要求考生从中选出 1 个最佳答案，填入题干空白处使该句语法正确、意思完整、逻辑合理。
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址该部分共 10 小题，序号为 31~40，每题 0.5 分，共计 5 分。例：
31. i hope you will _______ your cold in a couple of days.
a. get over
b. get off
c. get away
d. get out
32. bacteria's needs vary in the living environment, but most of them grow best in a slightly acid _______.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址33. postnatal care includes assessment and counseling provided to the mother after ________ in a health facility.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址a. giving birth
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址b. receiving an injection
c. getting pregnant
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址d. undergoing an operation
34. mean blood vitamin d3 increased ________ in the intervention when compared with the control group.
35. ________ your poor record in the medical school, we think you should study harder.
a. in spite of
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址b. in case of
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址c. in charge of
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址d. in view of
36. the sufferer with hydrophobia is ________ of water.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址section b: 替换 ( substitution )
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址本部分试题的题干为一个或两个句子，句中有一个单词或短语带有下划线，题干后附 4 个选项，要求考生从中选出1个和句中划线部分的意义基本相同或近似的最佳答案。
该部分共 10 小题，序号为 41~50，每题 0.5 分，共计 5 分。例：
41. experts can even reach consensuson how the material standard of living sharply reduces the death rate.
42. habits can be consciouslystrengthened, as when a patient in physical rehabilitation practices and memorizes different limb activities.
43. if the cells can't use sugar, the body begins to break downits own tissues for food.
44. doctors discourage massivedoses of drugs for infants.
45. biologically speaking, she doesn't resembleeither of her parents.
a. take over
b. take after
c. take on
d. take up
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址本部分为 1 篇短文。旨在测试考生在篇章水平上理解和运用语言的综合能力。实意词与功能词基本上各占 50%。实意词主要是指具有语义内容，在特定句子中具有独立内涵的词，包括名词、动词、形容词、副词等。功能词主要是指具有语法结构、句法功能的词或词组，包括从属连词、关系代词、冠词、介词及表明时态和语态的功能词。要求考生阅读一篇约 200 个单词的英语短文，其中留有 10 处空白，每一处空白对应 4 个选项。考生在理解全文大意和上下文意思的基础上，从 4 个选项中选出一个最佳答案。使短文在语法、用词、句型结构和上下文逻辑关系等方面都能完善。
该部分共 10 小题，每题 1 分，共计 10 分。序号为 51～60，考试时间 10 分钟。例：
despite growing numbers of joggers, canada fitness surveys demonstrate that canadians are less physically fit than their u.s. or swedish counterparts. many people are convinced that they do not exercise often or vigorously __51__ for optimal benefits. only about 25 per cent of canadian adults paddle at the __52__level that increases the heart beat to a(n) __53__level and keeps it there for at least 15 minutes thrice weekly. men are more likely to be either "sedentary" or "very active", __54__women are more likely to be"moderately active."
common reasons for __55__are no willpower, poor facilities, boredom, fatigue, sheer laziness or lack of time. experts suggest that incentives and rewards be used to help sustain the exercise habit until the 56 become so self-evident that activity is automatically scheduled into daily routines.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址a modest increase in daily activity __57__the sedentary could improve the overall health of our population more than increased activity in those already __58__exercise. activities in older people help them stay agile, and feel better.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址even a small gain in fitness among the elderly may permit them to replace a restricted lifestyle with an enriched one __59__they can play golf, dance, cycle and garden. the __60__message is clear: physical activity benefits body and mind, especially for the least active ones.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址51. a. plenty
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址52. a. recommending
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址53. a. record
54. a. though
55. a. not exercising
b. not to exercise
c. being exercised
d. being exercising
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址56. a. reasons
57. a. by b. at c.to d. on
58. a. excluded from
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址b. launched into
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址c. dedicated to
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址d. done with
59. a. in which
b. for whom
60. a. crystal
part iv 阅读理解(reading comprehension)
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址本部分由 6 篇阅读短文组成，每篇短文有 350 个单词左右。旨在测试考生通过阅读获取信息的能力，包括阅读速度和理解程度。要求考生在读完一篇短文后，能理解其主题思想、主要内容和相关细节;能根据所读短文的内容进行推理判断，理解某些词和短语在具体语境中的意义，理解句与句之间的内在篇章逻辑关系，能领会作者的观点和思想情感，判断其对事物的态度。
测试材料主要涉及医普、科普和人文等各种题材和体裁的文章。每篇短文通常包括 3 种题型：大意概括题(questions for general idea)具体细节题(questions for specific details)和判断推理题(questions for inference)。大意概括题主要考查考生对文章主题思想的概括和归纳能力;具体细节题主要考查考生对短文中存在的相关事实或现象的辨认能力;判断推理题主要考查考生对文字背后和字里行间的含义进行正确判断或推理的能力。
每篇短文后附有 5 个问题，每个问题后均有 4 个选项，要求考生根据所读短文的内容从每个题的 4 个选项中选出 1 个最佳答案。
该部分共 30 个小题，序号为 61~90，每题 1 分，共计 30 分。考试时间 60 分钟。例:
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址new orleans, with too many private hospitals competing desperately for paying patients, has become notorious for dumping patients. a typical "dump" was described by a director of emergency medical care at charity hospital. early in november his department received a call from a private hospital seeking to transfer a patient. they told us he had slight facial lacerations, the director said. "it sounded ordinary enough. but what the emergency room doctors found when the man arrived was something else. his face was torn to bits. we found teeth in the man's throat. i could take my fingers and move his jaws back and forth like a flag in a high wind. the bottom part of the man's face was crushed. we had to give him six pints of blood. he wasn't getting enough oxygen because of the blood in his throat." doctors at the first hospital had done nothing for the man other than transfer him.
dumping has become so routine in new orleans that, even though anyone needing emergency treatment is supposed to be taken to the nearest hospital, ambulance crews routinely ask accident victims or members of the families if they have insurance. if the answer is no, the ambulance crew quietly transfers patients to charity hospital.
frequently, the transferees weren't told the reason for the transfer. a quarter of all those transferred were physically unstable—they suffered from bleeding, shock, severe burns, etc.—and shouldn't have been transferred.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址patients who get dumped aren't the only ones hurt. at a hospital such as cook county, in los angeles, which treats nearly a thousand patients a day in its emergency room, extra cases create real hardship." these patients go through incredible ordeals. some of them don't get seen the day they come and have to come back and line up again," said hospital personnel.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址despite the horrors revealed by studies of dumping, not many cases have resulted in lawsuits. this isn't surprising, for people who get dumped often don't have the resources to fight legal battles, and in many states there are no laws protecting against dumping. on the national level, legislation is pending to protect patients by mandating that patients be stabilized before they are transferred.
61. in a typical case of dumping patients, the private hospital would ______.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址deliberately get rid of patients with no means to pay
refer a difficult case to a better-equipped hospital
deal quickly with the patient before transferring
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址only give primary treatment to paying patients
62. as required in new orleans, ________.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址the medical insurance does not cover the ambulance
the patient can't be transferred against his or her will
the ambulance crews should include experienced doctors
the patient in emergency should be sent to a nearby hospital
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址63. as implied in the 4th paragraph, patients who get dumped ________.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址are accepted normally and treated quickly
often need to wait for their turns just like others
may disrupt the routine treatment of other patients
are usually taken back to the hospital where they belong
64. what, according to the passage, is the legal problem about dumping?
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址the transferees can hardly make out a good case.
the transferees are not rich enough to hire lawyers.
the transferees often have difficulty fighting legal battles.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址the transferees are often not surprised by the horrors due to dumping.
65. we can infer from the last paragraph that in the us ________.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址not many lawsuits can result in compensation
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址the phenomenon of dumping is going to be against the law
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址dumping patients is becoming an important area for legal battles
some states will pioneer in passing the law protecting against dumping
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址brittany donovan was born 13 years ago in pennsylvania. her biological father was sperm donor g738. unbeknown to brittany's mother, g738 carried a genetic defect known as fragile x-a mutation that all female children born from his sperm will inherit, and which causes mental impairment, behavioral problems and atypical social development.
last week, brittany was given the green light to sue the sperm bank, idant laboratories of new york, under the state's product liability laws. these laws were designed to allow consumers to seek compensation from companies whose products are defective and cause harm. nobody expected them to be applied to donor sperm.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址thousands of people in the us have purchased sperm from sperm banks on the promise that the donor's history has been carefully scrutinized and his sample rigorously tested, only for some of them to discover that they have been sold a batch of bad seed. some parents learn about genetic anomalies after their disabled child is born and they press the sperm bank for more information. others realize it when they contact biological half-siblings who have the same disorder.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址so will donovan vs idant laboratories open the floodgates? it seems unlikely. new york's product liability laws are highly unusual in that they consider donor sperm to be a product just like any other. most other us states grant special status to blood products and body parts, including sperm. in these states, donor sperm is not considered a"product"in the usual sense, despite the fact that it is tested, processed, packaged, catalogued, marketed and sold. similarly, european union product liability law could not be used in this way.
even if this lawsuit is an isolated case, it still raises some difficult questions. first, to what lengths should sperm banks go to ensure they are supplying defect-free sperm? as we learn more and more about human genetics, there is a growing list of tests that could be performed. nobody would deny that donor sperm carrying the fragile x mutation should be screened out-and there is a test that can do so-but what about more subtle defects, such as language impairment or susceptibility to early alzheimer's?
66. donovan sued idant laboratories for ________.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址selling donor sperm as a product
supplying problematic donor sperm
boasting defective biological products
failing to protect the client's confidentiality
67. under the state's product liability laws, the controversial question of the case was whether ________.
donated sperm could be considered just a product
donovan could be allowed to sue the sperm bank.
donovan's genetic defect could be confirmed
the company could afford the compensation
68. it can be inferred from the passage that actually thousands of people in the us purchase sperm _______.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址out of their desperate needs
regardless of repeated warnings
with a series of privacy violations
without knowing its potential dangers
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址69. the reason why the case is unlikely to open the floodgates is that the ny-based laws _______.
guarantee the safety of donor sperm
give special status to the issue of sperm
treat donor sperm as a product by all means
are specially designed for body parts, including sperm
70. which of the following can most probably serve as the general idea of the passage?
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址a chance in a million.
science behind the law.
a product hard to guarantee.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址no such a thing as donor sperm.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址after 25 years of battling the mother of all viruses, have we finally got the measure of hiv? three developments featured in this issue collectively give grounds for optimism that would have been scarcely believable a year ago in the wake of another failed vaccine and continuing problems supplying drugs to all who need them.
perhaps the most compelling hope lies in the apparent "cure" of a man with hiv who had also developed leukemia. doctors treated his leukemia with a bone marrow transplant that also vanquished the virus. now us company sangamo biosciences is hoping to emulate the effect using gene therapy. if it works, and that is still a big if, it would open up the possibility of patients being cured with a single shot of gene therapy, instead of taking antiretroviral drugs for life.
antiretroviral therapy (art) is itself another reason for optimism. researchers at the world health organization have calculated that hiv could be effectively eradicated in africa and other hard-hit places using existing drugs. the trick is to test everyone often, and give those who test positive art as soon as possible. because the drugs rapidly reduce circulating levels of the virus to almost zero, it would stop people passing it on through sex. by blocking the cycle of infection in this way, the virus could be virtually eradicated by 2050.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址funding such a long-term program would cost serious money-initially around s3.5 billion a year in south africa alone. huge as it sounds, however, it is peanuts compared with the estimated $1.9 trillion cost of the iraq war. it also looks small beer compared with the costs of carrying on as usual, which the who says can only lead to spiraling cases and costs.
the final bit of good news is that the cost of art could keep on falling. last friday, glaxosmithkline chairman andrew witty said that his company would offer all its medicines to the poorest countries for a lower price than the typical price in rich countries. gsk has already been doing this for art, and, hopefully, other companies may follow their lead.
no one doubts the devastation caused by aids. in 2007, 2 million people died and 2.7 million more contracted the virus. those dismal numbers are not going to turn around soon—and they won't turn around at all without huge effort and investment. but at least there is renewed belief that, given the time and money, we can finally start ridding the world of this most fearsome of viruses.
71. which of the following can be most probably used to describe the key message conveyed in the passage?
optimism should never be lost, whatever happens.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址we can see some light at the end of the tunnel.
a quick fix is no longer a dream.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址disasters can still hit endlessly.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址72. according to the passage, the case of the apparent"cure"could ______.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址promise a new discipline of gene therapy in medicine
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址facilitate the development of an effective vaccine for hiv
help people draw an analogy between aids and leukemia
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址change the way we seek a possible cure for those with aids
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址73. which of the following is referred to as another bit of optimism?
the development of art has a time table.
hiv will be virtually wiped out first in africa.
the cycle of hiv infection can be broken with art.
the existing hiv drugs are being ungraded to become more effective.
74. it can be safely inferred from the passage that in the foreseeable future ________.
even advanced aids patients can be treated free in the poorest countries
gsk will have no financial problem developing art in the world
aids patients in poverty can hopefully have easy access to art
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址governments will invest more in improving art globally
75. the last paragraph carries a tone of _______.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址part v 书面表达(writing)
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址本部分为书面表达，旨在测试考生使用英语书面表达自己思想的能力。测试分为摘要写作翻译(汉译英)和命题作文 3 种形式，每年任选其中一种。题材内容主要为与医学相关的社会议论话题或科普内容。
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址该部分共计 20 分。考试时间 50 分钟
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址1. 摘要写作(summary writing)
要求考生阅读一篇汉语短文并为其撰写英文摘要。摘要具有一定的体例规范要求，而不是简单的选择性汉译英。考生在阅读一篇字数为 600~800 之间的汉语短文后，用英语写出一篇约 200 个单词的摘要。该题型重点考查考生的分析归纳和书面表达能力，在分析归纳方面，要求考生撰写的摘要必须覆盖所规定的所有要点或重点，偏离主题或漏写要点会影响得分。在英语书面表达能力方面，要求所写摘要用词恰当、语法正确、篇章结构合理，文字通顺，符合英语表达习惯。
薪酬收入与付出极不平衡是全科医生(general practitioner, gp)目前最为突出的问题。全科医生肩负基本医疗和公共卫生两项任务。这意味着除了医疗本职工作之外,还需要承担预防保健、病人康复和慢性病管理、健康管理等任务。胜任这些任务就需要更高的综合素质。
据上海长宁区某社区医院医生透露,上级要求社区医生学习中医、心理咨询、健康管理、营养等,并且还要求到达中级证书水平。学了这么多证书出来，每天上班既要从事医疗工作，又要做公卫工作,一个人要签约近 3000 名居民，收入却依然是四五千。增加了这么多技能，提供了这么多服务，工资却没有变化，全科医师心理的天平自然会不平衡。
据央视报道，上海潍坊社区的医生李亚玲一年收入是 7 万元，而与她同期毕业在某三甲医院工作的同学收入比她高 1 倍。面对这样的现实，如果有机会找到收入更高的工作，她没理由不改行。有数据显示，2007 年至 2009 年，北京市社区卫生服务机构共引进 2000 人，但 3 年里流失率非常高，而社区医生流失原因中 67% 是因为薪酬低。
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址据了解，国外全科医生的收入是社会平均工资的 3~4 倍，这与当下我国社会全科医生的薪酬形成鲜明对比。国外全科医生的待遇普遍较高，英国、德国等发达全科医生待遇约是社会平均收人的 3~4 倍，与此相对，我国全科医生收入与社会平均收入水平基本持平，仅有 4% 左右的医生年收入超过 10 万元，相较于发达 3~4 倍于社会平均收人水平的全科医生收人，我国全科医生的待遇较低，薪酬回报不具有吸引力，这也是我国全科医生行业人才匮乏、素质整体较低的重要原因。
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址currently, the problem is that general practitioners(gp) are short-paid. their income does not match with their hard job. they have a wide range of duties such as clinical practice, preventive healthcare, patient's rehabilitation, chronic disease management, and health management. such duties are quite demanding on the gp. however, the efforts they have made are not paid for enough. on the one hand, gps are required to receive continuing medical education for certificates and qualifications. once a gp is qualified, he/she has to be engaged in both medical practice and public health for 3 000 local residents who have signed a contract with their gp. on the other hand, gps are quite short-paid for their hard efforts. as a case in point, dr. li yaling, a gp for a local community, earns her annual income of rmb70,000.00, much lower than that made by her counterpart who works in a tertiary hospital. gps in britain, germany and other developed countries earn their annual income 3~4 times higher than the national average income, while chinese gps make approximately the national average. as a result, they tend to leave their jobs for higher-paid positions. the insufficient workforce can lead to lowered quality of medical service in general.
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址将一篇 300 个字左右的汉语短文翻译为英语，短文可以是一段,也可以是数段，共计 20 分。考试时间 50 分钟，该题型旨在测试考生汉译英的能力，重点考查考生用英语准确再现汉语原文思想和内容的能力。
with the socialization of production and modernization of science and technology, a growing number of achievements and accomplishments in medical technology have proved that social factors can have a negative effect on health, causing medical problems. as a milestone in the medical modernization,the established discipline of social medicine is an inevitable result of the development of science and technology.
the medical model has changed from the biomedical one to the biology-psychology-society one simply because of the increasing speed of aging populations and the shift of disease spectrum from infectious disease to chronic and non-infectious ones. correspondingly, the healthcare services are managed in four directions:from the single medical treatment to preventive healthcare, from physiology to psychology, from the hospital service to community services and homecare, and from the single therapies of medical technology to the comprehensive social work.
in response to these four transfers caused by the shift of the medical model, inevitably, the medical socialization comes into being. the inevitable trend produces objective evidence for the development of social medicine.
3. 命题作文(essay writing)
大阳城2021集团娱乐网址根据题目要求，写一篇 250 个单词左右的文章。共计 20 分，考试时间 50 分钟。该题型旨在测试考生英语议论文的写作能力，重点考查考生在写作中的思想性、逻辑性以及语言应用能力。
title: your health is in your own hands three topic ideas：
Everyone hopes to be healthy—to feel fit and strong and happy. This gives rise to the rapid growth of health industry worldwide, which provides health products and services for people in pursuit of health. Unfortunately, our health is constantly put at risk. Climate change, environmental toxins, stress at work, junk food and many other risk factors all have serious consequences for our health.
One of the major health threats is largely related to our lifestyle, Cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, overeating, sitting up late and excessive use of digital devices are health-damaging behaviors of many individuals. Abundant evidence shows that these unhealthy ways of living have become leading causes of many illnesses and diseases and even death. What's worse, even if one is informed of the negative impacts of these habits, he, or she may do nothing to quit them before their heart, spine or blood vessels are severely damaged or stop functioning.
How many of you are aware that, to a great extent, your health is in your own hands? Thanks to present-day information resources, you now have easier access to knowledge of health and professional consultation. Thus you are able to make lifestyle changes using scientifically-proven methods. Admittedly, you may find it uncomfortable or even maddening when you stop smoking or spend less time on your phone. You may start by taking some minor actions. Small changes will make big differences. Eat a balanced diet, sit less and move more, and rest well. The benefits are profound. You are your own health defender and life saver!